p-ISSN: 1300-0551
e-ISSN: 2587-1498

Şefika Kızıltoprak1, Şensu Dinçer2

1Sports Medicine Section, İstanbul Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey
2Sports Medicine Department, İstanbul Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul University, İstanbul, Turkey

Keywords: Snapping hip, hip abductor strength, HAGOS, ballet dancer


Objective: To compare hip abductor muscle strength in ballet dancers with and without snapping hip syndrome and to evaluate the correlation between Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) sub-scores and snapping intensity

Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected dancers, allocated to 3 groups according to their assessment by anterior hip pain or snapping in physical examination. The subjects completed the HAGOS survey. Subsequently, hip abductor strength was measured using a hand-held dynamometer.

The study was carried out on a total of 70 pre-professional ballet dancers (140 hips, aged 16-20). Participants classified into three groups based on medical history and physical examination (G1: pain (-) snapping (-); G2: pain (-), snapping (+); G3: snapping (+) and pain (+)). Secondly, all hips were classified into three groups (H1: pain (-), snapping (-), H2: pain (-), snapping (+), H3: pain (+), snapping (+). Snapping intensity in participants rated by the frequency of snapping (between level 0-4) according to their self-report. Differences were assessed between dancers and hips with snapping hip and without snapping hip.

Results: There was no difference in hip abductor strength levels between three hip groups (p=0.446). However, significant differences were observed in mHAGOS, pHAGOS, sHAGOS mean values between the three (G1, G2, G3) groups (p<0,001; p<0,001; p<0,001, respectively). sHAGOS, pHAGOS and mHAGOS mean values were significantly higher in G1 and G2 when compared to G3. Besides, there were negative correlation between snapping intensity and mHAGOS (p=0.002, rho=-0.37), pHAGOS (p=0.001, rho=-0.39) and sHAGOS (p=<0.001, rho=-0.55).

Conclusion: Hip abductor strength levels were not significantly affected by the presence of snapping in dancers; further investigation is needed in this regard. However, the results revealed that HAGOS sub-scores and snapping intensity is related. HAGOS questionnaire might be implemented to the dancers as a preseason screening method for snapping hip.

Cite this article as: Kiziltoprak S, Dincer S. Comparison of hip abductor strength in pre-professional ballet dancers with and without snapping hip Turk J Sports Med. 2022, 57(2):86-91; https://doi.org/10.47447/tjsm.0603

Ethics Committee Approval

The approval for this study was obtained from Queen Marry University of London Clinical Research Ethics Committee (Decision no: QMREC2014/24./123).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to authorship and/or publication of the article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or publication of this article.


Special thanks to Dr. Manuela Angioi and Dr. Paulina Kloskowska, Karen Sheriff, Adam Mattiussi, Dr. Richard Twycross-Lewis, Dr. Dylan Morrissey for all their contributions and support.