p-ISSN: 1300-0551
e-ISSN: 2587-1498

Sabriye Ercan1, Aydan Örsçelik2, Ahsen Oğul3, Cem Çetin1

1Sports Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Süleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Türkiye
2Sports Medicine Department, Gülhane Training and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Ankara, Türkiye
3Sports Medicine Department, Gazi Yaşargil Training and Research Hospital, Diyarbakır, Türkiye

Keywords: Pregnancy, exercise, knowledge


Objective: Benefits of exercise in pregnancy on maternal and fetal health are well-documented, whereas physical activity participation and knowledge of exercise during pregnancy are limited among pregnant women. This research purposed to develop a tool to measure knowledge of exercise during pregnancy.

Material and Methods: This is a methodological study. After review of the literature, a pool of items was created. These items were regulated into a Likert-type scale. The content validity of the 27-item pilot-scale was assessed by expert review. The pilot-scale was applied online to women aged over 18 years with a history of at least one full-term live delivery. After the pilot application, validity and reliability were analyzed.

Results: The content validity ratios (CVR) of items were between 0.500-0.900, and the content validity index (CVI) of the scale was 0.690. The scale underwent item analysis for reliability, and factor analysis for validity assessment. Subsequently, a total of 15 items were removed due to increasing Cronbach's alpha coefficient (k=10) and if having a communality value below 0.30 in the extraction column of the communalities table (k=5).

The remaining 12 items were collected under a single factor with an eigenvalue of 5.731 that explained 47.8% of the variance. The scale was found to be highly reliable (Cronbach's alpha 0.894, Spearman-Brown split-half reliability coefficient 0.796, Guttman split-half reliability coefficient 0.792). The confirmatory factor analysis indicated good fit for the 12-item scale.

Conclusions: The newly developed 12-item Knowledge of Exercise during Pregnancy Scale is valid and reliable for use with Turkish women to assess knowledge of exercise during pregnancy.

Cite this article as: Ercan S, Orscelik A, Ogul A, Cetin C. Development of the knowledge of exercise during pregnancy scale. Turk J Sports Med. 2022, 57(2):92-9; https://doi.org/10.47447/tjsm.0596

Ethics Committee Approval

The approval for this study was obtained from Clinical Research Ethics Board of Süleyman Demirel University (Approval number: 2021/11, Date: 8.01.2021).

Author Contributions

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to authorship and/or publication of the article.

Conflict of Interest

Concept: SE, AÖ, AO, CÇ; Design: SE, AÖ; Supervision: SE, CÇ; Materials: SE, AÖ, AO; Data Collection and/or Processing: SE, AÖ, AO; Analysis and Interpretation: SE; Literature Review: SE, AÖ, AO; Writing Manuscript: SE, AO; Critical Review: All Authors.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or publication of this article.


We would like to thank academicians who shared their expert opinions, and women who have participated in our research.