p-ISSN: 1300-0551
e-ISSN: 2587-1498

Ömer Faruk İlicepınar1, Mehmet İmir2, Berat Can Cengiz2, Senih Gürses2, Yiğitcan Menderes1,
Egemen Turhan3, Gürhan Dönmez1, Feza Korkusuz1

1Sports Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Türkiye
2Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Türkiye
3Orthopedics and Traumatology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Türkiye

Keywords: Sport biomechanics, knee injury, return to sports, joint kinematics, ground reaction force, injury prevention


Objective: Single-leg forward and crossover triple hop tests are predictors of recovery and return-to-sports after lower extremity injury and treatment. The purpose of the study is to assess the kinematic and kinetic feasibility and repeatability of a motion analysis base for these hop tests in recreational male athletes.

Methods: Normal ranges of single- and crossover triple hop tests kinetics, kinematics, peak frequencies and magnitude alterations in spectral distributions were evaluated in 11 recreational male athletes. Ground reaction forces were measured using a force plate. A motion capture system was used to record peak knee flexion-extension angles. Peak frequency and magnitude characteristics in spectral distributions were calculated from these measurements.

Results: Ground reaction force normalized to body weight at landing was 2.9±0.1 (N/kg*10) in both legs during repetitions. Average flight over total time was 0.49±0.03 and 0.38±0.01 (s/s) for single and crossover triple hop tests, respectively. Flight, preparatory and total jump times were 0.301±0.020, 0.331±0.033 and 0.641±0.038 s for single, and 0.261±0.014, 0.453±0.024 and 0.701±0.046 s for crossover tests. Knee angle variations except for peak flexion angles were similar in both extremities. Main frequency spectral characteristic was about 2-4 Hz. First and second peak frequencies for the left and right leg were 3.19±0.17 and 7.16±0.17, and 3.15±0.16 and 7.18±0.19 Hz, respectively. Hop tests presented similar flight times during repetitions. This was however different during crossover jumps tests: flight times were shorter while preparatory times were longer. First characteristic frequency and magnitude were common in two tests.

Conclusions: Peak flexion and extension angles and second characteristic frequency in single tests were specific to each participant. Hop tests are responsive to different performance metrics and are repeatable and feasible, so these tests can be used to create a comparative database for athletes.

Cite this article as: Ilicepinar OF, Imir M, Cengiz BC, Gurses S, Menderes Y, Turhan E, et al. Recreational male athletes’ single leg forward hop and crossover triple hop test kinetics, kinematics, peak frequency and magnitude alterations. Turk J Sports Med. 2024;59(1):17-23; https://doi.org/10.47447/tjsm.0768

Ethics Committee Approval

The approval for this study was obtained from Hacettepe University, Non-Interventional Clinical Researches Ethics Board, Ankara, Türkiye (Decision no: GO20/662 Date: 23.02.2021).

Author Contributions

Author Contributions: Concept - OFI,MI,BCC,SG,FK; Design -OFI,MI,BCC,SG,FK; Supervision - FK,SG,ET,GD; Materials - MI,BCC,SG; Data Collection and/or Processing - OFI,MI,BCC,SG,YM; Analysis and Interpretation - BCC, Literature Review - OFI,YM; Writing Manuscript - OFI,MI,BCC,SG,FK; Critical Reviews - FK,SG

Conflict of Interest

Feza Korkusuz, MD is an active member of the Turkish Academy of Sciences (TÜBA).

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or publication of this article.