p-ISSN: 1300-0551
e-ISSN: 2587-1498

Nadia Shafiei1, Faruk Turgay1, Nevzad Denerel2

1Coaching Department, Sports Sciences Faculty, Ege University, İzmir, Türkiye
2Sport Sciences Department, Eastern Mediterranean University, Mağusa, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

Keywords: Handball, water polo, nitric oxide, oxidative stress, critical velocitiy


Objective: Nitric oxide (NO) is a gas that has vasodilatory, antioxidant and metabolic regulatory properties. Both NO and oxidative stress (OS) are risk factors for atherosclerosis (AS). These properties of NO, therefore play a critical role in training adaptations. Handball and water polo are team sports requiring aerobic and anaerobic energy. However, since they are practised in different environments, their effects on blood NO and OS levels may be different. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of these two team sports on blood NO and OS levels.

Material and Methods: Male handball players (HG, n=14), water polo players (WPG, n=12) and a control group (CG, n=13) of sedentary players participated in this study. Physical and physiological measurements, including critical velocity of the participants were made. The participants' fasting serum NO and OS indicators, and total antioxidant/oxidant status (TAS/TOS) were determined.

Results: TAS levels of HG and WPG were significantly lower than those of the control group (p<0.05, p<0.01), whereas their NO levels were higher than those of CG (19.5% and 25.7% respectively, p>0.05). No significant difference was present for NO between HG and WPG. A significant negative correlation was present between CV and serum NO level, and there was a positive correlation between maximal 1500 m running time and NO for handball players.

Conclusions: The findings of the study reveal that although training caused a significant decrease in antioxidant capacity in two team sports athletes, serum NO levels improved, thereby contributing to cardiovascular health. NO may harm aerobic endurance performance, but it had a beneficial effect on anaerobic power in the handball group, and none for water polo players.

Cite this article as: Shafiei N, Turgay F, Denerel N. The effects of handball and waterpolo training on blood nitric oxide and oxidative stress levels. Turk J Sports Med. 2023 58(1):21-5;https://doi.org/10.47447/tjsm.0732

Ethics Committee Approval

This study was approved by the Ege University Faculty of Medicine Scientific Research Ethics Committee (approval number 12-6/4, date: 20.04.2012).

Author Contributions

Concept: XX; Design: XX; XXpervision: XX; Materials: XX; Data Collection and Processing: XX, XX; Analysis and Interprepation: XX; Literature Review: XX; Writing Manuscript: XX; Critical Reviews: XX.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to authorship and/or publication of the article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or publication of this article.