p-ISSN: 1300-0551
e-ISSN: 2587-1498

Aydan Örsçelik1, Sabriye Ercan2

1Health Sciences University Gulhane Medical Faculty Sports Medicine Department, Ankara, Turkey
2Faculty of Medicine, Süleyman Demirel University, Sports Medicine Department, Isparta, Turkey

Keywords: Doping, attitude, scale development


Objective: To develop the "Physicians' Attitude Scale towards Doping" and provide the validity and reliability of the scale in Turkish physicians.

Material and Methods: This quantitative research design study followed the scale development study procedures. Initially, the 47-items pool was submitted for academicians’ expert opinion. Thirty-two items with a content validity ratio value below 0.56 were removed from the scale after expert opinion. Thus, the content validity ratio was calculated as 0.67-1.00, and the content validity index was 0.844. After the expert opinion, the pilot-scale with 15 items was applied to the physicians by reaching the sample size of at least 10 times the number of items. According to the answers given to the pilot scale, validity and reliability analyzes of the scale were made.

Results: A 15-item pilot scale was applied to 292 physicians. Four items that reduce the Cronbach's alpha coefficient and an item with a value below 0.30 in the extraction column of the communalities table were excluded from the scale. Item discrimination index values of the scale were found to be appropriate (p˂0.001). All of the item load distributions were found above 0.50, and the item quality was good. The total variance rate explained by this factor is 59.3%. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient of the whole scale was calculated as 0.761. The fit indices of the model tested with confirmatory factor analysis were good.

Conclusion: The "Physicians' Attitude Scale towards Doping" was developed, and the validity and reliability of the two factor and total 10-item scale were provided.

Cite this article: Örsçelik A, Ercan S. Physicians' attitude scale towards doping: A scale development study. Turk J Sports Med. 2022, 57(3):129-35; http://doi.org/10.47447/tjsm.0629

Ethics Committee Approval

The approval for this study was obtained from Süleyman Demirel University Ethics Committee (Decision no: 102 Date: 17.02.2021).

Author Contributions

Concept all authors; Design all authors; Supervision all authors; Materials all authors; Data Collection and/or Processing all authors; Analysis and Interpretation all authors; Literature Review all authors; Writing Manuscript all authors; Critical Reviews all authors.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to authorship and/or publication of the article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or publication of this article.


We would like to thank all academicians who shared their expert opinions and physicians who have participated in our research.