p-ISSN: 1300-0551
e-ISSN: 2587-1498

Yavuz Lima1, Nazlı Deniz Öz2, Nevzad Denerel3, Özgur Özkaya4, Seçkin Senışık5, Simon Rice6,7

1Sports Medicine Division, Balıkesir Atatürk City Hospital, Balıkesir, Turkey
2Recreation Department, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey
3Sports Medicine Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Eastern Mediterranean University, Nicosia, Cyprus
4Coaching Education Department, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Ege University, İzmir, Turkey
5Sports Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, İzmir, Turkey
6Orygen, The National Centre of Excellence in Youth Mental Health, Melbourne, Australia
7Centre for Youth Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Keywords: Confirmatory factor analysis, athlete, mental health, adaptation


Objective: The aim of this study was to test the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Athlete Psychological Strain Questionnaire (APSQ).

Material and Method: The APSQ, which consists of 10 items and 3 sub-dimensions (self-regulation difficulty, performance concerns, and externalized coping) and assesses athlete-specific psychological distress, was administered to a total of 565 elite athletes (247 females, and 318 males). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to assess construct validity, and Cronbach alpha reliability analysis was used to determine internal consistency. Concurrent validity of the APSQ with the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales-21 and the Kessler Psychological Stress Scale-10 was also tested.

Results: Findings for construct validity were consistent with three-factor structure of the original questionnaire (RMSEA=0.05, SRMR=0.03, NFI=0.94, CFI=0.96, GFI=0.97). The Cronbach’s α coefficient of the whole scale was 0.83, and the Cronbach’s α coefficients of three sub-dimensions were 0.75, 0.69, and 0.50 separately.

Conclusion: Findings demonstrate that the Turkish adaptation of the APSQ has sufficient psychometric properties for widespread use, assessing key dimensions of psychological strain experienced by elite athletes.

Cite this article as: Lima Y, Oz N, Denerel N, Ozkaya O, Senisik S, Rice S. Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Athlete Psychological Strain Questionnaire (APSQ). Turk J Sports Med. 2022, 57(3):147-54; https://doi.org/10.47447/tjsm.0637

Ethics Committee Approval

The approval for this study was obtained from Ege University Clinical Research Ethics Committee (Decision no: E-43746 Date: 14.02.2021).

Author Contributions

Concept YL, NDÖ, SR; Design YL, NDÖ, SR; Supervision All authors; Materials YL, ND, ÖÖ, SŞ; Data Collection and/or Processing YL, ND, ÖÖ, SŞ; Analysis and Interpretation YL, NDÖ, SR; Literature Review All authors; Writing Manuscript YL, NDÖ, SR; Critical Reviews All authors.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to authorship and/or publication of the article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or publication of this article.