p-ISSN: 1300-0551
e-ISSN: 2587-1498

Devrim AYRAL

Ege Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Spor Hekimliği Anabilim Dalı, Bornova, İzmir

Keywords: Sports injuries, first aid, (P)RICE principles, sports rehabilitation, cyrotherapy


Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) may be associated with a reduction in post-exercise recovery. The inflammatory response to EIMD is associated with regional cell necrosis and the efflux of cellular substrate from the damaged muscle, which may lead to an increase in circulating creatine kinase (CK). Possible explanations for the decrease in plasma CK activity following cryotherapy, which is a popular recovery modality including various cold application methods, are reduced inflammatory response through the capillary constriction, and reductions in capillary permeability and blood flow. Following EIMD, there may be a reduction in the ability to train at the required intensity or load, which may negatively influence performance. Changes in muscle function and joint mechanics associated with EIMD, together with higher levels of fatigue may increase the risk of injury. Cold pack application to hamstring muscles is associated with significant decreases in selected pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, anabolic mediators and catabolic markers. Some authors who focused on muscle strains have demonstrated frequent abnormality of muscle strength and balance, through isokinetic assessment. Combining eccentric exercise of “decelerating” muscles (such as the hamstrings) and concentric exercise of “mobiliser” muscles (such as the quadriceps) in mixed ratios is suggested in muscle strain injury rehabilitation. An increased emphasis on eccentric strengthening exercises particularly for the hamstrings, significantly reduces injury recurrence and lingering complaints upon return-to-sport.